Thursday, August 27, 2020

6 Most Incredible Female Book Characters

6 Most Incredible Female Book Characters Worldwide Womens Day is practically around the bend, so weve chose to respect the ladies that a large number of us have appreciated for quite a while female book characters that have impacted and enlivened us somehow. Magnificently ground-breaking and unbelievably splendid, here they are in the infographic beneath from Jo March of Little Women to Dagny Taggart of Atlas Shrugged. Weve picked the characters that impact us most, so marry love to hear which ones overwhelm you! Highlighted picture credit: Photo by Jaap Buitendijk  © 2010 WARNER BROS. Amusement INC. HARRY POTTER PUBLISHING RIGHTS (C) J.K.R. HARRY POTTER CHARACTERS, NAMES AND RELATED

Saturday, August 22, 2020

John Steinbeck Research Paper Example

John Steinbeck Paper John Steinbeck Archie Parks HUM/266 June 17, 2011 Lauren Holmes John Steinbeck John Steinbeck (1902-1968), conceived in Salinas, California, originated from a group of moderate methods. He worked his way through school at Stanford University however never graduated. In 1925 he went to New York, where he pursued for a couple of years to build up himself as an independent author, yet he fizzled and came back to California (Nobelprize. organization, 2011). Steinbeck didn't have accomplishment with his initial works. Tortilla Flat a clever anecdote about Monterey Paisanos distributed in 1935 turned into his first notable bit of work. Early Influences As a kid growing up Steinbeck was roused to be an essayist by his mom. Steinbeck’s mother adored books and writing; she was an instructor and his most punctual impact into composing. As Steinbeck got more established he frequently refered to Charles Darwin as the principle impact in his profession. Charles Darwin captivated Steinbeck; Steinbeck was stunned in the authenticity and naturalism of Darwin’s work. Steinbeck’s inventiveness principally started essentially. He was mindful of his environmental factors and huge numbers of a mind-blowing occasions just as social circumstances added to setting and plots for his novel. We will compose a custom exposition test on John Steinbeck explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on John Steinbeck explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on John Steinbeck explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer A large portion of his books occurred during the time of the extraordinary sadness. Creative accomplishment Steinbeck got a kick out of the chance to consolidate territory environmental factors into his composition. He frequently explored different avenues regarding various styles of composing, similar to a play in novel organization. He additionally utilized fabular, picaresque, and narrative styles also. Steinbeck frequently expounded on destitute individuals and how their lives were changed by their conditions and utilized the design of the land as an aesthetic style too. His abilities as a narrator were fantastic. His commitment with the imperative social issues of his day was deserving of the most noteworthy conventions of reporting. He produced a strong, plain composition style of huge enthusiastic range. Also, in his significant work, he made a suffering demonstration of societys oppressed, straightforward people going up against the evil spirits of neediness, brutality and bias and declining to yield (Kamiya, 1995). What makes Steinbecks style one of a kind is his double utilization of omniscient portrayal joined with a genuine compassion for his characters. Steinbecks most grounded composing ability is in his utilization of portrayal (Steinbeck, 2011). In the entirety of his books, OMAM included, we truly feel like we know the characters. We are maneuvered into their circumstances that what they suffer and need to survive. The predicament of each character pulls at your heart strings and keeps the peruser on the edge, never needing to delay from the story. Steinbeck attempted to locate a natural methods for articulation for each book that he composed. He believed his work to be trial. He deliberately utilized a narrative style for The Grapes of Wrath, the fabular for The Pearl, the picaresque for Tortilla Flat, etc. By and large he has a place with the fantasy image school of the twenties. Dreams, the oblivious, repeating fantasies, representative charactersthese characteristics are normal for what Jung called the visionary style. Authenticity, Steinbeck once noted, is the surface structure for his enthusiasm for brain research and theory (Lewis, 2011). Effect on society John Steinbeck was one of not many United States scholars to fiddle with the domain of social issues. He assaulted the issues and made them unmistakable in his compositions. In the grapes of fierceness he took on the downturn and recounted to the account of Oklahoma residents who fled the residue bowl to relocate to California for work just to wind up exploited and compelled to manage unexpected social and financial issues. Steinbeck took on mental impediment, social biases and socially satisfactory conduct with the character Lennie Small in the novel Of Mice and Men. In one of his last works East of Eden Steinbeck took on Good versus insidious and in his last composing Travels with Charley Steinbeck expounded on his impressions during a three-month visit in a truck that drove him through forty American states. He kicked the bucket in New York City in 1968. John Steinbeck is one of the twentieth Century’s most critical journalists, getting the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. Steinbecks impact and thoughts on social equity for the financial underclass of American culture can be obviously found underway of Bob Dylan and others (Woody Guthrie, Billy Brag, Bruce Springsteen and others) (Tuffey, 2004) Closing American author, story essayist, dramatist, and writer. John Steinbeck got the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1962. He is best associated with THE GRAPES OF WRATH (1939), a novel generally viewed as a twentieth century exemplary. The effect of the book has been contrasted with that of Harriet Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin. Steinbecks epic about the movement of the Joad family, determined from its bit of land in Oklahoma to California, incited a wide discussion about the hard parcel of transient workers, and assisted with placing a farming change into impact (Liukkonen, 2002). In Researching data for this paper I thought that it was stunning that not every person saw Steinbeck for the artistic virtuoso that he was. Numerous individuals ignored Steinbeck’s compositions thinking of them as basic. Huge numbers of his fans don't accept that he got the credit that he was expected and feel that he was disregarded and censured by a few. This creator by and by adores the dynamic of each of Steinbeck’s stories. The character stories alongside social issues that were genuine, issues that pulled you in and made you believe is the thing that made Steinbeck champion and a genuine masterful Genius. John Steinbeck kicked the bucket of cardiovascular failure in New York on December 20, 1968. In the after death distributed THE ACTS OF KING ARTHUR AND HIS NOBLE KNIGHTS (1976), Steinbeck walked out on contemporary subjects and enlivened the Arthurian world with its old codes of respect. Steinbeck had begun the work with eagerness however never completed it (Liukkonen, 2002). Steinbeck has risen above ages and his scholarly works engage as much now as they have previously. In conclusion I will leave you with these words from The Grapes of Wrath that really show John Steinbeck’s composing Genius. Man, in contrast to some other thing natural or inorganic known to mankind, develops past his work, strolls up in the steps of his ideas, rises in front of his achievements. (from The Grapes of Wrath) . References Kamiya, G. (1995, March 12). John steinbeck a splendid new life story may get Salinas most loved child some over due regard in the artistic world. Recovered from http://www. sfgate. com/cgi-canister/article. cgi? f=/e/a/1995/03/12/style13230. dtl Lewis, C. (2011, June 16). John Steinbeck (1902-1968). Recovered from http://www9. georgetown. edu/workforce/bassr/wellbeing/syllabuild. iguide/steinbec. html Liukkonen, P. (2002). John Steinbeck (1902-1968). Recovered from http://www. kjrjasto. sci. fi/johnstei. htm Nobelprize. organization. (2011, June 21). The Nobel Prize in writing 1962 John Steinbeck. Recovered from http://nobelprize. organization/nobel_prizes/writing/1962/steinbeck-bio. html Steinbeck, J. (2011). The Grapes of Wrath. Recovered from http://www. enotes. com/grapes-of-rage/creator life story Tuffey, D. (2004). John steinbeck;s see on close to home morals. Recovered from http://www. ict. griffith. edu. au/davidt/steinbeck. htm

Friday, August 21, 2020

NCEC Essay Sample - How to Write a Successful One

NCEC Essay Sample - How to Write a Successful OneNCEC Exam Credential Essay samples, written by professional lecturers and teachers, allow the students to evaluate their knowledge before they take the test. For some students, such exams to help them in identifying the weaknesses in their performance. Such study guides also help them with their writing ability and level of concentration.There are several types of essays used in the NCEC test. The three basic types are in the form, layout and content. Before beginning the examination, students must have a clear idea about which type of essay will be used for their NCEC Essay. Once they know the format, they can properly prepare for the exam. Preparing for this exam is not an easy task and needs great concentration on the part of the student.Before going into the specifics of how the NCEC Exam Credential Essay is being written, it is important for students to understand the pros and cons of different formats. Some students find it hard to write an essay on their own while others find it easier than usual. However, there are some techniques that are required for writing the format of the essay in the best possible manner.Usually, the first part of the exam will contain review questions. This part is basically the introduction of the student to the exam. Students should be able to answer all the question on the first part of the NCEC exam without any hesitation. After answering all the questions, the student should compose the conclusion paragraph and submit it in the form of an answer sheet.Exam paper will usually contain details about the subject being studied. It is necessary for the student to mention in the essay the content that he or she has read throughout the entire examination. Apart from this, the essay should also contain the points that he or she has learned during the entire examination period.The NCEC Test includes six parts in total. The examination papers consist of four sections namely, Language, R eading, Analytical, and Data and Reasoning. Each of these four sections is associated with a different kind of exams that will be used in the upcoming examinations.The first section of the test focuses on grammar, reading, and writing skills. Students should be able to write concisely and effectively in order to pass the test. Therefore, the students should familiarize themselves with the basic grammatical structure of the language as well as the basic vocabulary of the language.The second section of the test is about the use of data and logic. This section helps students with their ability to integrate the information acquired in previous sections. Students should be able to solve many analytical problems with the help of proper data and logic.

Monday, May 25, 2020

Why Won’t the U.S. Ratify the CEDAW Human Rights Treaty

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is a United Nations treaty that focuses on womens rights and womens issues worldwide. It is both an  international bill  of rights for women and an agenda of action.  Originally adopted by the U.N. in 1979, nearly all member nations have ratified the document. Conspicuously absent is the United States, which has never formally done so. What Is the CEDAW? Countries that ratify the  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women agree to take concrete steps to improve the status of women and end discrimination and violence against women. The agreement focuses on three key areas. Within each area, specific provisions are outlined. As envisioned by the U.N., the CEDAW is an action plan that requires ratifying nations to eventually achieve full compliance. Civil Rights:  Included are the rights to vote, to hold public office and to exercise public functions; rights to non-discrimination in education, employment and economic and social activities; equality of women in civil and business matters; and equal rights with regard to choice of spouse, parenthood, personal rights and command over property. Reproductive Rights:  Included are provisions for fully shared responsibility for child-rearing by both sexes; the rights of maternity protection and child-care including mandated child-care facilities and maternity leave; and the right to reproductive choice and family planning. Gender Relations:  The convention requires ratifying nations to modify social and cultural patterns to eliminate gender prejudices and bias; revise textbooks, school programs and teaching methods to remove gender stereotypes within the educational system; and address modes of behavior and thought which define the public realm as a mans world and the home as a womans, thereby affirming that both genders have equal responsibilities in family life and equal rights regarding education and employment. Countries that ratify the agreement are expected to work toward implementing the conventions provisions. Every four years each nation must submit a report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. A panel of 23 CEDAW board members reviews these reports and recommends areas requiring further action. Womens Rights and the U.N. When the United Nations was founded in 1945, the cause of universal human rights was enshrined in its charter. A year later, the body created the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to address womens issues and discrimination. In 1963, the U.N. asked the CSW to prepare a declaration that would consolidate all international standards regarding equal rights between the sexes. The CSW produced a Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, adopted in 1967, but this agreement was only a statement of political intent rather than a binding treaty. Five years later, in 1972, the  General Assembly  asked the CSW to draft a binding treaty. The result was the  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.   CEDAW was adopted by the General Assembly on Dec. 18, 1979. It took legal effect in 1981 after it had been ratified by 20 member states,  faster than any previous convention in U.N. history. As of February 2018, nearly all of the U.N.s 193 member states have ratified the agreement. Among the few that have not are Iran, Somalia, Sudan, and the United States. The U.S and CEDAW The United States was one of the first signatories of the  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women when it was adopted by the U.N. in 1979.   A year later,  President Jimmy Carter signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate for ratification. But Carter, in the final year of his presidency, did not have the political leverage to  get senators to act on the measure. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which is charged with ratifying treaties and international agreements, has debated CEDAW five times since 1980. In 1994, for instance, the Foreign Relations Committee  held hearings on CEDAW and recommended it be ratified. But North Carolina Sen. Jesse Helms, a leading conservative and longtime CEDAW opponent, used his seniority to block the measure from going to the full Senate. Similar debates in 2002 and 2010 also failed to advance the treaty. In all instances, opposition to CEDAW has come primarily from conservative politicians and religious leaders, who argue that the treaty is at best unnecessary and at worst subjects the U.S. to the whims of an international agency. Other opponents have cited CEDAWs advocacy of reproductive rights and enforcement of gender-neutral work rules. CEDAW Today Despite support in the U.S. from powerful legislators such as Sen. Dick Durbin of Illinois, CEDAW is unlikely to be ratified by the Senate anytime soon. Both supporters like the League of Women Voters and AARP and opponents like Concerned Women for America continue to debate the treaty. And the United Nations actively promotes the CEDAW agenda through outreach programs and social media.   Sources The United Nations Treaty Collection. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. 3 September 1981. A Brief History of the CSW. Accessed 27 February 2018.Cohn, Marjorie. Obama: Ratify the Women Convention Soon., 5 December 2008.MacLeod, Lauren. Exposing CEDAW., 5 September 2000.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Mattel Case Stusy - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1382 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/09/25 Category Science Essay Type Narrative essay Topics: Study Essay Did you like this example? BUSINESS ETHICS ASSIGNMENT 1 STUDENT NAME: THUY LINH NGUYEN NOI3002 I. DO MANUFACTURES OF PRODUCTS FOR CHILDRENS HAVE SPECIAL OBLIGATIONS TO CONSUMERS AND SOCIETY? IF SO, WHAT ARE THESE RESPONSIBILITIES? Because of the company’s product and designs primary for children, it must be sensitive to social concern about children’s right: By assuring parents that their children’s privacy will be respected, Mattel demonstrated that it takes its responsibility of marketing to children seriously. In 2007, Mattel conduct entitled Global Manufacturing principles. In this principle, Mattel’s business partners must ensure high standard for product safety and quality, adhering to practices that meet Mattel’s safety and quality standards, make sure that the entire product will not be harmful to the children. Partners must also comply with all import and export regulation and they must strictly adhere to local and international customs law. An example of Mattel responsibility to the children is the Mattel children foundation which is found in 1998. The gift was mean to support the existing hospital and provide for a new state-of-art-facility. To the society, the company is not using any child labor, forced labor or uses any type of that labor itself. The company stated that it does not tolerate discrimination, the employee should be hire according to their ability to complete the job, not their believe or characteristics II. HOW EFFECTIVE HAS MATTEL BEEN AT ENCOURAGING ETHICAL AND LEGAL CONDUCT BY ITS MANUFACTURERS? WHAT CHANGES AND ADDITIONS WOULD YOU MAKE TO THE COMPANY’S GLOBAL MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLE? All partners must respect the intellectual property of the company, and support Mattel in the protection of asset. Mattel always required its business partner s to commit with their high ethical standards for product safety and quality. But in recent years, some standards have been seriously violated, such as using chi ld labor in some overseas company. Those companies were later on asked to change their operation or risk losing Mattel’s business or being punished by legal department or suited by Mattel or the customers. In order to encourage their partner, they also conducted the Global Manufacturing Principles. Here are some of my recommendations for Mattel’s Global Manufacturing Principles: 1. Make sure the contractors and subcontractor use the right facilities for Mattel’s products. 2. Maintain the supervisor 3. All the products must be tested carefully to make sure that they not violated to any cultural ethic and ensure their safety III. TO WHAT EXTENT IS MATTEL RESPONSIBLE FOR ISSUES RELATED TO ITS PRODUCTION OF TOYS IN CHINA? HOW MIGHT HAVE MATTEL ADVOID THESE ISSUES? 007 was a bad year for Mattel. Despite Mattel’s best effort, not all oversea manufactures have faithfully adhered to its high standard, forcing Mattel to make two huge toys recall. The re called toys sold by Mattel was for various health hazards. Among them were toys that contained magnets and lead paint Small magnets used in toys can fall out and be swallowed or aspirated. Intestinal or blockage can occur, if more than on magnet is swallowed. Lead is extremely toxic and can create numerous health problems when swallowed or inhaled in large level. The paint used in recalled products was not certified for use according to Mattel standards. In my opinion, the Chinese contractors had violated the commitment between two companies by using lead paint. But, we cannot say that Mattel is not responsible for this issue. Firstly we should talk about its three points paint check system: 1. Mattel only use paint from certificated suppliers. Every batch from every vendor is tested. Any batches not passing the test will not be used. 2. The production process controls are for vendors and random unannounced inspections are implemented. . All finished toy produced are tested before they get to the customers. As we can see, that a very strict check system but why those harmful toys could still pass through and went to the market? It’s clearly that using lead paint is bad but let those toys get to the customer isn’t it worst? If I own a car toy factory and I allow my neighbor to produce my car and my neighbor use toxic paint to paint them then we are both in the wrong. So both Mattel and the Chinese contractor are equally to blame. Mattel also have problems with their design, the magnet fall out too easy. As they are losing their reputation and subcontractors, Mattel should really do something to avoid these issues. In my opinion, firstly, Mattel should improve its design and carefully exam the toy before launch them out. Secondly, they should also improve their supervisor over the products and make sure all of them pass the high standards request. Thirdly, Mattel should investigate contractors and audit the subcontractor and if necessary, provide th em the information about their product high standard and safety. IV. SHOULD MATTEL RECEIVE CONTROL OF MGA’S BRAZT DOLLS? IF SO, WHAT ACTIONS SHOULD MATTEL TAKE REGARDING BRAZT? Brazt is really the first doll to successfully compete against the massively successful Barbie franchise in ages. The Brazt ranges of doll have affected the sale of Mattel’s leading product: Barbie and decreased by %6 The battle began when Mattel had an investigation and found out that: Carter Bryant, the designer of the Brazt range, who was then working for MGA, had conceived the ideas of Brazt while he was at Mattel. Matte then suited MGA to gain the control over Brazt. A judge earlier judged that MGA had develop the doll from the intellectual property that belonged to Mattel and so, he ordered that Mattel take over the manufacture and sale of the doll after the Christmas season. In my opinion, even if you state that the concept of the doll was created at Mattel, at best you could make a n argument that Mattel had some right to an injunction and profit from the first generation of the doll. The judge not only ruled MGA to stop selling and manufacturing Brazt but also have to hand over all sort of confident info includes: all related product, customers’ info and especially the 2010 plan†¦ That is difficult to see any fairness at all for forcing them hand over the future plan that have nothing to do with the created while at Mattel. MGA was then faced a critical situation: they are forced to collect and destroy all Brazt dolls that are in the market. MGA had investigated it would have to spent about $10 million or $20 million to do so. But in December 9, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals essentially stopped the process. The court ruled the MGA can continue to sell their Brazt dolls that are currently on the market until the next judgment is made. The court also indicated that the order transferring ownership of the Bratz trademark and copyright from MGA to Mattel was drastic, and questioned why Mattel wasnt simply given a royalty or ownership stake in MGAs Bratz franchise. The appellate judges also ordered Mattel and MGA to mediation. In other words, the two companies should try to sort it out themselves. MGA then paid US $100 million (instead of US$500 million as Mattel sued MGA for) in damages, citing that only the first generation of Bratz had infringed on Mattel property and that MGA had innovated and evolved the product significantly enough that subsequent generations of Bratz could not be conclusively found to be infringing. I think that would be the best solution for both Mattel and MGA because Brazt has been in the market for a long time and is going to celebrate its 10th anniversary. Customers love Brazt and they don’t want to lose them or changed them. After this affair some customers say they don’t want Barbie anymore because Mattel was just being selfish and it seems like they simply trying to s top competition. As so, in my opinion, Mattel should work out a deal with MGA in which MGA can continue sell Brazt dolls as long as Mattel share in some of the profits. REFENRENCES: Case study 6, â€Å"Mattel responds to Ethical Challenges†, p3, 4,5,6,7. Mike Masnick, 2009, â€Å"Why Mattel Get Future Should Plans For New Bratz Dolls? †Accessed 1 May 5, 2010. ( https://www. techdirt. com/articles/20090527/0143345018. shtml) Bonnie Fitzgerald, â€Å"Made in China: Mattel Recalls toys for safety issues â€Å"accessed 1 May 5, 2010 (https://www. helium. com/items/608895-made-in-china-mattel-recalls-toys-for-safety-issues) Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Mattel Case Stusy" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

White Collar Crimes Are Committed By Middle Of A Higher...

White collar crimes are committed by middle of a higher status in any given occupation. These crimes often involves a validation of trust from a valued employee within a company. These crimes can include trade secrets, fraud, money laundering, identity theft, and healthcare fraud. The people committing these crimes come from a higher class and you wouldn’t thinking someone is poor would commit a crime like this in nature. The media always bring to our attention since the 1990’s about the amount of white collar crimes happening in the United States. A few large companies like Enron, Madoff, Tyco Toys and some other companies were faced with prison sentences for their greed and personal vendettas. The world as a whole started opening their eyes and seeking knowledge about corporations and private companies to understand the corruption CEO’s, lawyer, and trading companies. White collar crimes are happening more often than in previous years. The media has tried to ke ep the public aware of the amount of white collar crimes that are occurring and the justice systems is taking too long to address the problem. Although, white collar crimes are non-violent and doesn’t pose a direct threat like other crimes it still can cause a personal or public perception that is violent in nature. When people lose their life saving, house, cars, retirement money, and stocks it is hard to say you won’t get violent when you know this person has taken everything you own for their personal gain. ScamsShow MoreRelatedHow Conformity Plays A Big Part Essay1708 Words   |  7 Pagesschools; which he defined the groups as Saints and Roughnecks. Both groups committed varies acts of deviance, but the type sanction depended on their social class and community. The Saints were described as, â€Å"promising young men-children of good, stable, white upper-middle-class families, active in school affairs†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Chambliss,1972, 265). 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Modern white collar crime focuses primarily on agriculture, productive activity, hand-tool technology, and farming villages as a community or family unit. While, postmodern white collar crime deals with more advanced technology such as computers, virtual communities, television/computer link-ups, and telephone communication. Overall, those who seek a career in criminology must navigate terminology barriers such as what way they would apply the term crime. Additionally, theyRead MoreDeviance And Crime Caused By Poverty1922 Words   |  8 PagesDeviance and Crime Caused by Poverty in Contrast to Wealth As I take a look back to everything I have learned in Sociology 101 an area of sociology I chose to explore further was deviance and crime in Canada. Deviance and crime seemed to interest me because it could help me deeply understand the different factors which cause low class societies to be deviant and criminal compared to their counterparts, high class, deviance and crime. With intentions of further exploring this area I concluded thatRead MoreEssay on Educating Prisoners - An Unnecessary Effort1041 Words   |  5 PagesPrisoners – An Unnecessary Effort   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Crime knows no bound, no race, no social status, no gender. In prisons, all criminals are criminals, whether they have committed felony, rape or assault. White-collar crimes are the same as any other crime. Still, most inmates are from the middle class and lower class of our society. However, committing crime, and what kind of crime, is still the choice of the person, whether he has attained a formal education, a higher degree of learning or not. Still the fact

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

A Level Titration Lab Report free essay sample

A titration is a method of analysis that will allow you to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask. A burette is used to deliver the second reactant to the flask and an indicator is used to detect the endpoint of the reaction. So a chemical reaction is set up between a known volume of a solution of unknown concentration and a known volume of a solution with a known concentration Method: You will need: * Solution of ‘acid rain’ (dilute sulphuric acid) * Sodium hydroxide solution, 0. 1mol dm-3 * 250cm3 conical flask * 10cm3 pipette and filler * Burette * Phenolphthalein indicator. * Clamp * Funnel * White tile (to help reading endpoint) Firstly prepare your burette, your burette should be filled with 0. 1mol dom-3 of the sodium hydroxide solution. When filling a burette, close the stopcock at the bottom and use a funnel. Check for air bubbles and leaks, before proceeding. We will write a custom essay sample on A Level Titration Lab Report or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To remove any air bubbles tap the side of the burette while the solution is flowing slowly. This is because if an air bubble is present during a titration the volume readings may be wrong. Take a volume reading and record the volume of solution in a table (see fig 1). Read the bottom of the meniscus. You need to make sure your eye is at the level of meniscus, not above or below because reading from an angle, rather than straight on will result in a parallax error. Use a pipette to transfer 10cm3 of the ‘acid rain’ sample to a 250cm3 conical flask. Add 5 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. Use the burette to deliver small amounts of the solution to the titration flask by turning the stopcock. The indicator will change colour when the required amount for neutralisation mixes with the solution in the flask, it will become a permanent pale pink colour. This is the endpoint and should be approached slowly; it needs to be a permanent pale pink for 20 seconds. Carry out several more titrations approaching the endpoint more slowly and watch the colour of your flask carefully. Rinse the flask with distilled water each time until you reach two volumes that agree to within 0. 1cm3. Record your readings in your table (fig 1) and calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide you have used. The first attempt will be a ‘rough’ titration; it will have gone beyond the end-point and added more sodium hydroxide than is needed to react with the acid in the flask. However this will give you a general idea of what the end-point is. Results and Calculations: Figure 1. The table shows the results from the titration: | | Accurate| | | Rough| 1| 2| 3| Final burette reading (cm3)| 15. 20| 14. 70| 29. 35| | Starting burette reading (cm3)| 0. 00| 0. 00| 14. 70| | Volume used from burette (cm3)| 15. 20| 14. 70| 14. 65| | Titre: 14. 70cm3 Figure 2. The table shows the calculation of the concentration in the acid rain sample: | SodiumHydroxide| SulphuricAcid| SodiumSulphate| Water| Molar Ratio| 2| 1| 1| 2| Concentration| 0. 10 mol dm-3| 0. 0735 mol dm-3| | | Volume| 0. 0147 dm-3| 0. 010 dm-3| | | Mol| 0. 00147 mol| 0. 000735 mol| | | The titre is 14. 70cm3 so I was able to calculate in the above table that the acid concentration is 0. 0735 mol dm-3. Evaluation: Sources of procedural errors: 1. *The first drop of titrant that causes colour change of the indicator is hard to judge. Even in the more careful titration (after determining the rough endpoint), the precise endpoint might be missed by a drop or two due to missing the indicator colour change. In our example this might give higher acid concentration than the real concentration. . Mistake in reading the volume in the burette due to misreading the meniscus. (parallax, reading the volume at an angle), this can cause over or underestimation of the analytic concentration. Air bubbles in the burette tap, might lead to accidently adding more NaOH as the titrant shoots up (this leads to overestimation of the acid concentration). 8. Unclean glassware contaminated from previous experiments. 9. Not transferring all acid solution (shaky hands leading to loosing part of the solution while transferring and thus underestimating acid amount). 10. Losing solution from titration flask before the end point due to too vigorous swirling. Leaking burette – giving at the endpoint higher reading than what was really used (overestimation of the acid). I have identified that 1 and 3 of the procedural errors would have the most impact on my overall results because firstly I rinse the flask with distilled water not H2SO4 and secondly it was first my titration and do not have the experience to judge the exact required shade of pink.