Monday, May 25, 2020

Why Won’t the U.S. Ratify the CEDAW Human Rights Treaty

The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) is a United Nations treaty that focuses on womens rights and womens issues worldwide. It is both an  international bill  of rights for women and an agenda of action.  Originally adopted by the U.N. in 1979, nearly all member nations have ratified the document. Conspicuously absent is the United States, which has never formally done so. What Is the CEDAW? Countries that ratify the  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women agree to take concrete steps to improve the status of women and end discrimination and violence against women. The agreement focuses on three key areas. Within each area, specific provisions are outlined. As envisioned by the U.N., the CEDAW is an action plan that requires ratifying nations to eventually achieve full compliance. Civil Rights:  Included are the rights to vote, to hold public office and to exercise public functions; rights to non-discrimination in education, employment and economic and social activities; equality of women in civil and business matters; and equal rights with regard to choice of spouse, parenthood, personal rights and command over property. Reproductive Rights:  Included are provisions for fully shared responsibility for child-rearing by both sexes; the rights of maternity protection and child-care including mandated child-care facilities and maternity leave; and the right to reproductive choice and family planning. Gender Relations:  The convention requires ratifying nations to modify social and cultural patterns to eliminate gender prejudices and bias; revise textbooks, school programs and teaching methods to remove gender stereotypes within the educational system; and address modes of behavior and thought which define the public realm as a mans world and the home as a womans, thereby affirming that both genders have equal responsibilities in family life and equal rights regarding education and employment. Countries that ratify the agreement are expected to work toward implementing the conventions provisions. Every four years each nation must submit a report to the Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women. A panel of 23 CEDAW board members reviews these reports and recommends areas requiring further action. Womens Rights and the U.N. When the United Nations was founded in 1945, the cause of universal human rights was enshrined in its charter. A year later, the body created the Commission on the Status of Women (CSW) to address womens issues and discrimination. In 1963, the U.N. asked the CSW to prepare a declaration that would consolidate all international standards regarding equal rights between the sexes. The CSW produced a Declaration on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women, adopted in 1967, but this agreement was only a statement of political intent rather than a binding treaty. Five years later, in 1972, the  General Assembly  asked the CSW to draft a binding treaty. The result was the  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women.   CEDAW was adopted by the General Assembly on Dec. 18, 1979. It took legal effect in 1981 after it had been ratified by 20 member states,  faster than any previous convention in U.N. history. As of February 2018, nearly all of the U.N.s 193 member states have ratified the agreement. Among the few that have not are Iran, Somalia, Sudan, and the United States. The U.S and CEDAW The United States was one of the first signatories of the  Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women when it was adopted by the U.N. in 1979.   A year later,  President Jimmy Carter signed the treaty and sent it to the Senate for ratification. But Carter, in the final year of his presidency, did not have the political leverage to  get senators to act on the measure. The Senate Foreign Relations Committee, which is charged with ratifying treaties and international agreements, has debated CEDAW five times since 1980. In 1994, for instance, the Foreign Relations Committee  held hearings on CEDAW and recommended it be ratified. But North Carolina Sen. Jesse Helms, a leading conservative and longtime CEDAW opponent, used his seniority to block the measure from going to the full Senate. Similar debates in 2002 and 2010 also failed to advance the treaty. In all instances, opposition to CEDAW has come primarily from conservative politicians and religious leaders, who argue that the treaty is at best unnecessary and at worst subjects the U.S. to the whims of an international agency. Other opponents have cited CEDAWs advocacy of reproductive rights and enforcement of gender-neutral work rules. CEDAW Today Despite support in the U.S. from powerful legislators such as Sen. Dick Durbin of Illinois, CEDAW is unlikely to be ratified by the Senate anytime soon. Both supporters like the League of Women Voters and AARP and opponents like Concerned Women for America continue to debate the treaty. And the United Nations actively promotes the CEDAW agenda through outreach programs and social media.   Sources The United Nations Treaty Collection. Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. Treaties.UN.org. 3 September 1981. A Brief History of the CSW. UNWomen.org. Accessed 27 February 2018.Cohn, Marjorie. Obama: Ratify the Women Convention Soon. Truthout.org, 5 December 2008.MacLeod, Lauren. Exposing CEDAW. ConcernedWomenforAmerica.org, 5 September 2000.

Friday, May 15, 2020

Mattel Case Stusy - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 5 Words: 1382 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2017/09/25 Category Science Essay Type Narrative essay Topics: Study Essay Did you like this example? BUSINESS ETHICS ASSIGNMENT 1 STUDENT NAME: THUY LINH NGUYEN NOI3002 I. DO MANUFACTURES OF PRODUCTS FOR CHILDRENS HAVE SPECIAL OBLIGATIONS TO CONSUMERS AND SOCIETY? IF SO, WHAT ARE THESE RESPONSIBILITIES? Because of the company’s product and designs primary for children, it must be sensitive to social concern about children’s right: By assuring parents that their children’s privacy will be respected, Mattel demonstrated that it takes its responsibility of marketing to children seriously. In 2007, Mattel conduct entitled Global Manufacturing principles. In this principle, Mattel’s business partners must ensure high standard for product safety and quality, adhering to practices that meet Mattel’s safety and quality standards, make sure that the entire product will not be harmful to the children. Partners must also comply with all import and export regulation and they must strictly adhere to local and international customs law. An example of Mattel responsibility to the children is the Mattel children foundation which is found in 1998. The gift was mean to support the existing hospital and provide for a new state-of-art-facility. To the society, the company is not using any child labor, forced labor or uses any type of that labor itself. The company stated that it does not tolerate discrimination, the employee should be hire according to their ability to complete the job, not their believe or characteristics II. HOW EFFECTIVE HAS MATTEL BEEN AT ENCOURAGING ETHICAL AND LEGAL CONDUCT BY ITS MANUFACTURERS? WHAT CHANGES AND ADDITIONS WOULD YOU MAKE TO THE COMPANY’S GLOBAL MANUFACTURING PRINCIPLE? All partners must respect the intellectual property of the company, and support Mattel in the protection of asset. Mattel always required its business partner s to commit with their high ethical standards for product safety and quality. But in recent years, some standards have been seriously violated, such as using chi ld labor in some overseas company. Those companies were later on asked to change their operation or risk losing Mattel’s business or being punished by legal department or suited by Mattel or the customers. In order to encourage their partner, they also conducted the Global Manufacturing Principles. Here are some of my recommendations for Mattel’s Global Manufacturing Principles: 1. Make sure the contractors and subcontractor use the right facilities for Mattel’s products. 2. Maintain the supervisor 3. All the products must be tested carefully to make sure that they not violated to any cultural ethic and ensure their safety III. TO WHAT EXTENT IS MATTEL RESPONSIBLE FOR ISSUES RELATED TO ITS PRODUCTION OF TOYS IN CHINA? HOW MIGHT HAVE MATTEL ADVOID THESE ISSUES? 007 was a bad year for Mattel. Despite Mattel’s best effort, not all oversea manufactures have faithfully adhered to its high standard, forcing Mattel to make two huge toys recall. The re called toys sold by Mattel was for various health hazards. Among them were toys that contained magnets and lead paint Small magnets used in toys can fall out and be swallowed or aspirated. Intestinal or blockage can occur, if more than on magnet is swallowed. Lead is extremely toxic and can create numerous health problems when swallowed or inhaled in large level. The paint used in recalled products was not certified for use according to Mattel standards. In my opinion, the Chinese contractors had violated the commitment between two companies by using lead paint. But, we cannot say that Mattel is not responsible for this issue. Firstly we should talk about its three points paint check system: 1. Mattel only use paint from certificated suppliers. Every batch from every vendor is tested. Any batches not passing the test will not be used. 2. The production process controls are for vendors and random unannounced inspections are implemented. . All finished toy produced are tested before they get to the customers. As we can see, that a very strict check system but why those harmful toys could still pass through and went to the market? It’s clearly that using lead paint is bad but let those toys get to the customer isn’t it worst? If I own a car toy factory and I allow my neighbor to produce my car and my neighbor use toxic paint to paint them then we are both in the wrong. So both Mattel and the Chinese contractor are equally to blame. Mattel also have problems with their design, the magnet fall out too easy. As they are losing their reputation and subcontractors, Mattel should really do something to avoid these issues. In my opinion, firstly, Mattel should improve its design and carefully exam the toy before launch them out. Secondly, they should also improve their supervisor over the products and make sure all of them pass the high standards request. Thirdly, Mattel should investigate contractors and audit the subcontractor and if necessary, provide th em the information about their product high standard and safety. IV. SHOULD MATTEL RECEIVE CONTROL OF MGA’S BRAZT DOLLS? IF SO, WHAT ACTIONS SHOULD MATTEL TAKE REGARDING BRAZT? Brazt is really the first doll to successfully compete against the massively successful Barbie franchise in ages. The Brazt ranges of doll have affected the sale of Mattel’s leading product: Barbie and decreased by %6 The battle began when Mattel had an investigation and found out that: Carter Bryant, the designer of the Brazt range, who was then working for MGA, had conceived the ideas of Brazt while he was at Mattel. Matte then suited MGA to gain the control over Brazt. A judge earlier judged that MGA had develop the doll from the intellectual property that belonged to Mattel and so, he ordered that Mattel take over the manufacture and sale of the doll after the Christmas season. In my opinion, even if you state that the concept of the doll was created at Mattel, at best you could make a n argument that Mattel had some right to an injunction and profit from the first generation of the doll. The judge not only ruled MGA to stop selling and manufacturing Brazt but also have to hand over all sort of confident info includes: all related product, customers’ info and especially the 2010 plan†¦ That is difficult to see any fairness at all for forcing them hand over the future plan that have nothing to do with the created while at Mattel. MGA was then faced a critical situation: they are forced to collect and destroy all Brazt dolls that are in the market. MGA had investigated it would have to spent about $10 million or $20 million to do so. But in December 9, the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals essentially stopped the process. The court ruled the MGA can continue to sell their Brazt dolls that are currently on the market until the next judgment is made. The court also indicated that the order transferring ownership of the Bratz trademark and copyright from MGA to Mattel was drastic, and questioned why Mattel wasnt simply given a royalty or ownership stake in MGAs Bratz franchise. The appellate judges also ordered Mattel and MGA to mediation. In other words, the two companies should try to sort it out themselves. MGA then paid US $100 million (instead of US$500 million as Mattel sued MGA for) in damages, citing that only the first generation of Bratz had infringed on Mattel property and that MGA had innovated and evolved the product significantly enough that subsequent generations of Bratz could not be conclusively found to be infringing. I think that would be the best solution for both Mattel and MGA because Brazt has been in the market for a long time and is going to celebrate its 10th anniversary. Customers love Brazt and they don’t want to lose them or changed them. After this affair some customers say they don’t want Barbie anymore because Mattel was just being selfish and it seems like they simply trying to s top competition. As so, in my opinion, Mattel should work out a deal with MGA in which MGA can continue sell Brazt dolls as long as Mattel share in some of the profits. REFENRENCES: Case study 6, â€Å"Mattel responds to Ethical Challenges†, p3, 4,5,6,7. Mike Masnick, 2009, â€Å"Why Mattel Get Future Should Plans For New Bratz Dolls? †Accessed 1 May 5, 2010. ( https://www. techdirt. com/articles/20090527/0143345018. shtml) Bonnie Fitzgerald, â€Å"Made in China: Mattel Recalls toys for safety issues â€Å"accessed 1 May 5, 2010 (https://www. helium. com/items/608895-made-in-china-mattel-recalls-toys-for-safety-issues) Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Mattel Case Stusy" essay for you Create order

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

White Collar Crimes Are Committed By Middle Of A Higher...

White collar crimes are committed by middle of a higher status in any given occupation. These crimes often involves a validation of trust from a valued employee within a company. These crimes can include trade secrets, fraud, money laundering, identity theft, and healthcare fraud. The people committing these crimes come from a higher class and you wouldn’t thinking someone is poor would commit a crime like this in nature. The media always bring to our attention since the 1990’s about the amount of white collar crimes happening in the United States. A few large companies like Enron, Madoff, Tyco Toys and some other companies were faced with prison sentences for their greed and personal vendettas. The world as a whole started opening their eyes and seeking knowledge about corporations and private companies to understand the corruption CEO’s, lawyer, and trading companies. White collar crimes are happening more often than in previous years. The media has tried to ke ep the public aware of the amount of white collar crimes that are occurring and the justice systems is taking too long to address the problem. Although, white collar crimes are non-violent and doesn’t pose a direct threat like other crimes it still can cause a personal or public perception that is violent in nature. When people lose their life saving, house, cars, retirement money, and stocks it is hard to say you won’t get violent when you know this person has taken everything you own for their personal gain. ScamsShow MoreRelatedHow Conformity Plays A Big Part Essay1708 Words   |  7 Pagesschools; which he defined the groups as Saints and Roughnecks. Both groups committed varies acts of deviance, but the type sanction depended on their social class and community. The Saints were described as, â€Å"promising young men-children of good, stable, white upper-middle-class families, active in school affairs†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Chambliss,1972, 265). Even though the communit y saw the Saints as â€Å"promising young children,† they committed various acts of deviance. Of the two years Chambliss observed the boys, heRead MoreSocio Economic Status Of The United States Essay1794 Words   |  8 Pageswhich are divided based on the socio economic status of the citizen or the family. The three different levels to the class sys-tem are the upper class, the middle class, and the lower class. Unfortunately there is also poverty that exists which is also a factor to be considered when analyzing crime. There are many theorist who believe that a person’s socio economic status has a large impact on the likelihood of whether or not a person will commit crime during their life-time. According to Bank, FlavinRead MoreExercise 3: White Collar Crime. In A Looking Glass Of A1448 Words   |  6 PagesExercise 3: White Collar Crime In a looking glass of a sociologist, we can see white collar crime in our everyday world. 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They have to be dealt with sternly, however well placed important and influential they may be; if we acquiesce in wrongdoing, people will lose faith in us†- Dr Radhakrishnan Methodology The research methodology used for the present research article is traditional DoctrinalRead MoreMarxists Crime and Deviance.875 Words   |  4 PagesExamine some of the ways in which Marxists explain crime Marxist theories of crime, including the more recent neo-Marxist theories, are conflict approaches. They see society based on conflict between social classes, and social inequality caused by capitalism as the driving force behind crime. One way that Marxists explain crime is through the law. Marxists argue that the law functions to reinforce the ideology of society – the power of the ruling class over the working class. Many laws can be seenRead MoreModern White Collar Crime : A Modern Or Postmodern Crime1079 Words   |  5 Pagesmodern or postmodern crime. Modern white collar crime focuses primarily on agriculture, productive activity, hand-tool technology, and farming villages as a community or family unit. While, postmodern white collar crime deals with more advanced technology such as computers, virtual communities, television/computer link-ups, and telephone communication. Overall, those who seek a career in criminology must navigate terminology barriers such as what way they would apply the term crime. Additionally, theyRead MoreDeviance And Crime Caused By Poverty1922 Words   |  8 PagesDeviance and Crime Caused by Poverty in Contrast to Wealth As I take a look back to everything I have learned in Sociology 101 an area of sociology I chose to explore further was deviance and crime in Canada. Deviance and crime seemed to interest me because it could help me deeply understand the different factors which cause low class societies to be deviant and criminal compared to their counterparts, high class, deviance and crime. With intentions of further exploring this area I concluded thatRead MoreEssay on Educating Prisoners - An Unnecessary Effort1041 Words   |  5 PagesPrisoners – An Unnecessary Effort   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Crime knows no bound, no race, no social status, no gender. In prisons, all criminals are criminals, whether they have committed felony, rape or assault. White-collar crimes are the same as any other crime. Still, most inmates are from the middle class and lower class of our society. However, committing crime, and what kind of crime, is still the choice of the person, whether he has attained a formal education, a higher degree of learning or not. Still the fact

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

A Level Titration Lab Report free essay sample

A titration is a method of analysis that will allow you to determine the precise endpoint of a reaction and the precise quantity of reactant in the titration flask. A burette is used to deliver the second reactant to the flask and an indicator is used to detect the endpoint of the reaction. So a chemical reaction is set up between a known volume of a solution of unknown concentration and a known volume of a solution with a known concentration Method: You will need: * Solution of ‘acid rain’ (dilute sulphuric acid) * Sodium hydroxide solution, 0. 1mol dm-3 * 250cm3 conical flask * 10cm3 pipette and filler * Burette * Phenolphthalein indicator. * Clamp * Funnel * White tile (to help reading endpoint) Firstly prepare your burette, your burette should be filled with 0. 1mol dom-3 of the sodium hydroxide solution. When filling a burette, close the stopcock at the bottom and use a funnel. Check for air bubbles and leaks, before proceeding. We will write a custom essay sample on A Level Titration Lab Report or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page To remove any air bubbles tap the side of the burette while the solution is flowing slowly. This is because if an air bubble is present during a titration the volume readings may be wrong. Take a volume reading and record the volume of solution in a table (see fig 1). Read the bottom of the meniscus. You need to make sure your eye is at the level of meniscus, not above or below because reading from an angle, rather than straight on will result in a parallax error. Use a pipette to transfer 10cm3 of the ‘acid rain’ sample to a 250cm3 conical flask. Add 5 drops of Phenolphthalein indicator. Use the burette to deliver small amounts of the solution to the titration flask by turning the stopcock. The indicator will change colour when the required amount for neutralisation mixes with the solution in the flask, it will become a permanent pale pink colour. This is the endpoint and should be approached slowly; it needs to be a permanent pale pink for 20 seconds. Carry out several more titrations approaching the endpoint more slowly and watch the colour of your flask carefully. Rinse the flask with distilled water each time until you reach two volumes that agree to within 0. 1cm3. Record your readings in your table (fig 1) and calculate the volume of sodium hydroxide you have used. The first attempt will be a ‘rough’ titration; it will have gone beyond the end-point and added more sodium hydroxide than is needed to react with the acid in the flask. However this will give you a general idea of what the end-point is. Results and Calculations: Figure 1. The table shows the results from the titration: | | Accurate| | | Rough| 1| 2| 3| Final burette reading (cm3)| 15. 20| 14. 70| 29. 35| | Starting burette reading (cm3)| 0. 00| 0. 00| 14. 70| | Volume used from burette (cm3)| 15. 20| 14. 70| 14. 65| | Titre: 14. 70cm3 Figure 2. The table shows the calculation of the concentration in the acid rain sample: | SodiumHydroxide| SulphuricAcid| SodiumSulphate| Water| Molar Ratio| 2| 1| 1| 2| Concentration| 0. 10 mol dm-3| 0. 0735 mol dm-3| | | Volume| 0. 0147 dm-3| 0. 010 dm-3| | | Mol| 0. 00147 mol| 0. 000735 mol| | | The titre is 14. 70cm3 so I was able to calculate in the above table that the acid concentration is 0. 0735 mol dm-3. Evaluation: Sources of procedural errors: 1. *The first drop of titrant that causes colour change of the indicator is hard to judge. Even in the more careful titration (after determining the rough endpoint), the precise endpoint might be missed by a drop or two due to missing the indicator colour change. In our example this might give higher acid concentration than the real concentration. . Mistake in reading the volume in the burette due to misreading the meniscus. (parallax, reading the volume at an angle), this can cause over or underestimation of the analytic concentration. Air bubbles in the burette tap, might lead to accidently adding more NaOH as the titrant shoots up (this leads to overestimation of the acid concentration). 8. Unclean glassware contaminated from previous experiments. 9. Not transferring all acid solution (shaky hands leading to loosing part of the solution while transferring and thus underestimating acid amount). 10. Losing solution from titration flask before the end point due to too vigorous swirling. Leaking burette – giving at the endpoint higher reading than what was really used (overestimation of the acid). I have identified that 1 and 3 of the procedural errors would have the most impact on my overall results because firstly I rinse the flask with distilled water not H2SO4 and secondly it was first my titration and do not have the experience to judge the exact required shade of pink.

Saturday, April 11, 2020

Satire Essay free essay sample

Millions of children attend school every day, learning new information, from reading to writing to learning calculus and Latin. These subjects can help them in their future lives. Here at North Shore Hebrew Academy High School, we have a long day, which runs from 8 AM to nearly 5 PM. The students study nine or ten subjects and average approximately ten tests and quizzes each month. As does every school in the world, North Shore has the right idea, but the school needs to improve its academic calendar. There should be a longer school year, longer days, more homework and many more tests, quizzes, projects and more importantly, more essays. A regular school year is 180 days; however in Phoenix, AZ there is a proposal to increase the school year to 200 days, which adds approximately one month to the school year. The Balsz district in Phoenix is one of the few schools in the country that added extra days. We will write a custom essay sample on Satire Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page This proposal is not enough. Therefore, there should be 355 days of learning each year (356 days in a leap year). Students should be given off New Year’s Day, Martin Luther King Day, Washington’s Birthday, Memorial Day, Independence Day, Labor Day, Columbus Day, Veterans Day, Thanksgiving Day, and Christmas Day. Half days would be granted on Christmas Eve, New Years Eve. It would be better to give students no days off at all, but these holidays appear to be necessary evils. In order to make up for the time lost to these wretched holidays, we must extend the length of the school day. The school should run from 7:00 in the morning to 7:30 in the evening. Lunch should be 36 minutes, during which time the students would be expected to eat their lunches while quietly reading or studying. The students will have three minutes to get to each of their 12 class periods. Class periods will run for 57 minutes. Students will follow the same schedule every day. Students will not be allowed to get up during class or leave the classroom for any reason. By spending more time in the classroom, students will be smarter and better prepared for their professional lives, which will doubtless involve being chained to their desks for weeks at a time. In order to be sure that students are absorbing the information that they learning in their classes, they will be assigned enough homework every night so that they will not have time to sleep. The students will have a quiz in each class before they start learning to check their knowledge. In addition, if they did not do their homework they will be assigned not only the homework they missed, but also an extra project. Depending on the teacher’s mood, the project would be of various difficulties. A student is allowed to miss four days in a school year. If a student misses five or more days, than that student will have to stay in school until 8 in the evening. Everybody knows that teenagers have no lives, never go to parties, go to movies, hang out with friends or go to the mall. Teenagers would rather be in a stuffy, cold space taking tests and writing essays until their eyes and fingers ache. Teenagers who want to have lives should be pitied. If they don’t have enough days of school and tests, they become ignorant, lazy, rude and fat. If the students are at school they will be learning all day and have no time to go and eat. However, if they are home during the day, all they would do is eat and watch television. The overall argument is that in current society, there is not enough pressure placed on high school students. With the SAT’s, advanced placement programs, and school athletics going on there is still the need for more class time, examinations, and homework. Students should be given little to no time to enjoy their lives. With this in mind, help fight for extended school days to benefit the children of America.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Free Essays on Hasidic Judaism

The Jewish communities of Eastern Europe in the late 17th and early 18th Centuries were devastated. From 1648 – 1654, â€Å"the greatest Jewish suffering since the Crusades [Porath, 33]† occurred which have been misleadingly coined the Ukrainian uprisings. This period, in Hebrew, is known as the Tach v’Tacht (the phrase represents all eight of the years, but is actually an acronym for the two worst years, the beginning years of the uprisings, 1648-49). Cossack anti-Semite Bogdan Chmelnicki led his fellow Cossacks, who were also Ukrainian peasants, throughout Europe to slaughter Jews. Historians say that anywhere from 100,000 to 125,000 Jews were slain: twenty to twenty-five percent of the Jewish population of Europe at that time [webinfonet.net/heritage/history.html, 10/29/01]. Many leaders attempted to arise from the occasion as Jewish leaders, but none of the flames could endure; no one could truly captivate the people enough to make his/her movement credible in the mind of the public. Then, in the early 18th Century, enters Israel Ben Eliezer, the man known as the Ba’al Shem Tov, Israel Ba’al Shem Tov, or Besht, the founder of Hasidism. He truly captivated the public as a strong, able leader whose philosophies were consistent with that of the working class, anti-intellectual, faithless Jew. Therefore, the entrance of Hasidism into the lives of Polish Jews, and eventually Jews around the world was a result of the need for blind faith in hard times, dissatisfaction with options available, and previously unseen able leadership. In order to truly understand Hasidism, we must attempt to understand the man to whom â€Å"more legends have been woven around†¦than around Moses, father of the Prophets [Rabinowicz, 29]† : Israel Ba’al Shem Tov, and his theological philosophies. Israel Ba’al Shem Tov (abbreviated as Besht) was born circa 1700 as part of a poor Polish family. He was an orphan at a young age, and was sent... Free Essays on Hasidic Judaism Free Essays on Hasidic Judaism The Jewish communities of Eastern Europe in the late 17th and early 18th Centuries were devastated. From 1648 – 1654, â€Å"the greatest Jewish suffering since the Crusades [Porath, 33]† occurred which have been misleadingly coined the Ukrainian uprisings. This period, in Hebrew, is known as the Tach v’Tacht (the phrase represents all eight of the years, but is actually an acronym for the two worst years, the beginning years of the uprisings, 1648-49). Cossack anti-Semite Bogdan Chmelnicki led his fellow Cossacks, who were also Ukrainian peasants, throughout Europe to slaughter Jews. Historians say that anywhere from 100,000 to 125,000 Jews were slain: twenty to twenty-five percent of the Jewish population of Europe at that time [webinfonet.net/heritage/history.html, 10/29/01]. Many leaders attempted to arise from the occasion as Jewish leaders, but none of the flames could endure; no one could truly captivate the people enough to make his/her movement credible in the mind of the public. Then, in the early 18th Century, enters Israel Ben Eliezer, the man known as the Ba’al Shem Tov, Israel Ba’al Shem Tov, or Besht, the founder of Hasidism. He truly captivated the public as a strong, able leader whose philosophies were consistent with that of the working class, anti-intellectual, faithless Jew. Therefore, the entrance of Hasidism into the lives of Polish Jews, and eventually Jews around the world was a result of the need for blind faith in hard times, dissatisfaction with options available, and previously unseen able leadership. In order to truly understand Hasidism, we must attempt to understand the man to whom â€Å"more legends have been woven around†¦than around Moses, father of the Prophets [Rabinowicz, 29]† : Israel Ba’al Shem Tov, and his theological philosophies. Israel Ba’al Shem Tov (abbreviated as Besht) was born circa 1700 as part of a poor Polish family. He was an orphan at a young age, and was sent...

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Week 12-business Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words - 1

Week 12-business - Essay Example The range of values of satisfaction for the variable can range from a minimum of 3 to a maximum of 15. The chi – square is test for significant difference in satisfaction between gender and majors. The hypothesis tested by the chi-square is to determine whether different samples are different enough in some characteristic. b). The statistical test to be used in the case is probability test. The variables are gender which is a dependent variable and majors which are independent variables (Weisberg 2005). The probability test articulates that there is no interaction because there is an intersection among the three majors (finance, accounting and management) among the male and female. /e) where 0 is observed data and e is expected data. The variables are gender which is a dependent variable and the majors (finance, accounting and management). If the chi-square value obtained is larger than critical value at any chosen probability fault threshold, then data presented statistical significant correlation between the variables that are used in the test (Walker & SAS Institute2010). In regression -0.3 to 0 shows a weak spread, 0 to 0.3 shows a moderate spread of data along the regression line and above 0.3 shows a concentrated spread about the regression line. So 0.3 shows a moderate spread around the regression line. Kurtosis is the measure of skewness. A zero kurtosis is mesokurtic, a positive kurtosis is leptokurtic and negative kurtosis is platykurtic. Therefore, kurtosis = 0.3 is mesokurtic which is a normal distribution. Durbin Watson statistic has values from 0 to 4. Where by value 2 show no autocorrelation in a sample selected. Any value approaching 0 shows positive autocorrelation while 4 shows a negative autocorrelation. So in this case d=0.3 indicates a positive autocorrelation. Shapiro – wilks w is a measure of normality of random sample. For instance if the value of p is more than 0.05 then it assumed to have a normal distribution

Thursday, February 6, 2020

The Multicultural Marketing Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

The Multicultural Marketing - Essay Example Today almost all major corporations are actively marketing their products beyond their original homeland borders. Infact the issue is generally not whether to market a brand in other countries or to target multiple audience but rather â€Å"how to do it† (as the same product with the same â€Å"global† advertising campaign, or â€Å"tailored† products and localized ads for each country). Today, marketers are much more aware of the significant opportunity that the varying demographic groups present. What's more, they realize that they can no longer afford to neglect the combined buying power of ethnic Americans who, according to estimates, make up $1.3 trillion, or 18.5%, of all US buying. To appeal to these highly lucrative and diverse audiences, marketers are abandoning traditional mass-marketing practices in favor of laser-focused, multicultural marketing efforts. This paper is discussing following points: 1. Understanding what is multicultural marketing? 2. Ways in which ethnicity can be incorporated into marketing strategy. 3. Presenting steps that how a marketer can reach its diverse customers in best possible way. 4. Importance of marketing for multicultural audience, and the benefits and advantages from being unique marketers for multicultural audience. ... This paper although focuses on cross-cultural marketing, the discussion is at the level of the individual nation-state rather than marketing between countries. In multicultural societies the composition of the population can be highly culturally diverse, comprising many ethnic groups which necessitate a cross cultural approach to marketing strategy and management as suggested by Rugimbana and Nwanko (2003). Here it is important to highlight the importance of ethnicity in marketing in multicultural societies or as WiLkison and Cheng (1999: 106) refer to it â€Å"international marketing at home. TECHNIQUES FOR MULTICULTURAL MARKETING: According to Tharp (2001), decision-makers in organizations in multicultural markets should have the skill of â€Å"border mentality† — identifying multiple situational-cultural meanings, or should perform the role of transmigrants† — bridging or overlapping agents among two or more subcultures. In order to be broad minded foll owing techniques should be adopted: 1) To spot patterns that allow subcultures to be grouped together, so that a common marketing Strategy may be extended to several subcultures in a group (â€Å"transcultural† marketing); 2) To develop a distinct marketing strategy for each subculture, if there is a significantly distinct cultural dimension that is important to the specific culture (multicultural marketing); 3) To further segment audiences in a subculture, if needed, in terms of cultural affinity, cultural identity or acculturation level (tactical adaptation within a subculture); 4) To develop parameters of culturally acceptable marketing stimuli; and 5) to establish a protocol for measuring cultural effectiveness of the stimuli. THE MOST CRITICAL ISSUES FACED BY MANAGERS   The critical issues are defined

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

Survey American History Essay Example for Free

Survey American History Essay Message was individuals must readmit God and Christ into their daily lives, must embrace a fervent, active piety, and must reject the skeptical rationalism that threatened traditional beliefs. But new denominations no longer accepted the idea of predestination. Popular acceptance of the idea that men and women could belong to different Protestant churches and still be committed t206o essentially the same Christian faith. Women flocked to these meeting which suggests that they were responding to their changing economic roles as well. They moved out of the home and into factories. African Americans: Group of African American preachers. Some translated the egalitarian religious message that salvation was available to all into a similarly egalitarian message for blacks in the present world. Native Americans: Neolin combined Christian and Indian imagery and bringing to Native American religion. He helped stimulate Indian military efforts of 1763 and beyond. Handsome Lake ( a Seneca used to be an alcoholic) inspired many Indians to give up whiskey, gambling and other destructive customs derived from white society. 7. Industrial Revolution (England and the US, how did it start? ) by the end of the 18th century it was well underway in many parts of the world. By the end of the 19th century the global process of industrialization had transformed the societies of Britain, most continental Europe, Japan, and the U. S. weaving- spinning -new devices for carding. For Americans the industrial revolution was largely a product of rapid changes in Great Britain, the nation with which they had the closest relations. America received more immigrants from Great Britain than from any other country. Samuel Slater: Used the knowledge he had acquired before leaving England to build a spinning mill for the Quaker merchant Moses Brown in Pawtucket, Rhode Island in 1790. It was the first modern factory in America. 8. Cotton Gin (effects? ) Eli Whitney: From MA and Yale Educated. Long-staple cotton smooth black seeds and long fibers but could only grow near the coast. Short staple cotton could grow anywhere in the south but the green seeds are hard to separate. Created the cotton gin that separated the seeds quickly and efficiently. He devised a machine to make each part of a gun according to an exact pattern. Tasks would be divided among several workers and one laborer could assemble a weapon out of parts made by several others. Used by manufacturers of sewing machines, clocks and many other complicated products. 9. Early American Transportation System Oliver Evans: Delaware. Made the automated flour mill, a card-making machine, and several important improvements in the steam engine and first textbook of mechanical engineering: The Young Mill-Wright’s and Miller’s Guide. Robert Fulton’s steam boat Turnpike era. They were usually made by private industries and they had tolls so they could make some money out of it. 10. Revolution of 1800 Jefferson considered his election as revolutionary. In his speech he said â€Å"We are all republicans, we are all federalists† and he outdid federalists in their work of expanding the territory 11. Washington DC Designed by Pierre L’Enfant. But during his presidency it was merely a village. Congressmen viewed Washington as a place where they should briefly visit and leave quickly. Some would even resign their seat in congress for a more prestigious seat for a state legislative seat. 12. The Jefferson Administration (policies) They persuaded congress to abolish all internal taxes which left custom duties, sale of western lands as the only source of revenue for the government.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Norma Rae Essay -- Capitalism Governmental Essays

Norma Rae In the film Norma Rae, the textile workers were unsatisfied with many aspects of their Capitalistic work environment. They fought to form a union so that they could change the undesirable characteristics to better meet their needs. Political, environmental and cultural processes all played a part in the workers struggle to form an effective union. Unlike the film, Matewan, in which the coal miners worked under feudal control, the employees of the O.P. Henley Mill worked amidst a Capitalistic Economy. The key difference between the two, is that the inhabitants of the town of Matewan did not have other choices of employment and the characters in Norma Rae had the ability to go into the free labor market and be active participants, choosing who they wished to work for. Throughout the film there was evidence of other forms of employment in Henleyville. There were jobs in town that required a higher degree of education that the workers in the mill may have received, a schoolteacher or a police officer for example. However, there were various other jobs in town did not require as much training. Some of these other job opportunities included working at the motel or in the local restaurants or bars as a waiter, a waitress, or a bartender. There were attendants at the gas station and workers at the grocery and convenience stores. In addition to these other choices of employment there was also a different economic system that the workers could have chosen to be a part of. Self – Employment existed in Henleyville. When Norma Rae is talking to Sonny Webster, before they went out on a date, they reminisced about when they were younger. â€Å"You used to come into my Mama’s bakery,† be remembered. The ... ...to promote the union without being fired. He explained that she could wear buttons on her shirt, hand out fliers during breaks and other additional freedoms. Eventually, the workers set aside their inhabitations and voted 373 to 427 in favor of the union. When asked, â€Å"What are you gonna do now?† Norma Rae said, â€Å"live – what else?† The question that the workers at the O.P. Henley Mill were faced with was not, where to work. They had the freedom to choose their employer. The workforce learned that they did not need to be trapped in an insufficient working environment and that by forming a union they could manipulate the parameters set by the Mill Company, to meet their requests. Works Cited West, Andrew. Capitalism.org West, Andrew. Capitalism.org

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Dancing with the White Rabbit

Carly Turner English 102 Polliard May 5th, 2011 Dancing With The White Rabbit People go under sedation all the time. They jump into the rabbit hole to receive colonoscopies, plastic surgery, dental work and other various medical procedures. Today’s world has become accustomed to regular use of sedation drugs however they do not realize just how dangerous they can be. There are many factors to be taken into account when someone is put under. Proprofol (Diprivan), a drug that is used to induce sedation, which is the cause of many medical malpractices and deaths, is not supervised enough in the medical community.Propofol is one of the most widely used forms of anesthesia (Nytimes. com). It was invented 20 to 25 years ago (News Week). It has multiple benefits over general anesthesia. Unlike general anesthesia, propofol has rapid onsets. â€Å"If you try to count backward from 100 after it's injected, you don't get to 97,† says Dr. Wischmeyer, a University of Colorado Anesth esiologist (Wall Street Journal). It also allows patients to recover and return to baseline activities such as eating and breathing on their own faster. In addition, it can result in less nausea and vomiting in patients (Ismp. rg). Because of this many practioners feel a false sense of security when using propofol. It can be harmful and even deadly if the person who is administering it is not trained in drugs that cause deep sedation and general anesthesia. On the labeling of Diprivan (Propofol), it is intended â€Å"for general anesthesia or monitored anesthesia care sedation†, meaning that that drug should only be administered by people trained in general anesthesia and not involved in the procedure being done. Propofol is an exact science. Dosing needs to be based on the patient’s tolerance to the drug.A number of factors including the age, weight, and how hydrated the person is factors into the efficiency of the drug (News Week). The tolerance can vary and can chan ge easily. Also, for a patient who uses it the first time, it’ll be much more potent but for a patient who uses it often it stays in the tissues and creates a tolerance to the drug (Inside Surgery). The possible side effects, are changes in moods and emotions, dizziness, drowsiness, and a lack of coordination (Drugs. com). The harsher effect is that a patient can go from breathing normally to being in respiratory arrest in seconds, even at what seems like a low dose.There are also no reversal agents to propofol, which means that the drug’s adverse effects have to be treated while the drug is being metabolized in the body (Inside Surgery). Considering all of these variables this makes working with propofol difficult and somewhat unpredictable, even for a trained professional. If a patient isn’t monitored closely enough by a person trained in sedation while on propofol then they can quickly go into respiratory arrest and thus get brain damage or die from not enoug h oxygen to the organs and brain (Ismp. rg). During a procedure, a nurse who was trained in moderate sedation, assisted a gastroenterologist in surgery by giving the patient propofol. The nurse gave too high of a dosage of propofol to the patient and the patient started experiencing respiratory arrest. In another case, a physician thought it would be safe to administer propofol himself while performing a breast augmentation surgery. According to a poll, eighty-three percent of people thought it was wrong for a surgeon to administer the propofol himself (Survey. com).The young patient died from not getting enough oxygen to the brain because there was no one there to supervise her. Nurses have been asked to give â€Å"a little more† of the propofol if a patient moved. Anesthesiologists have been known to leave the room and leave the syringe filled with propofol and a needle in the IV port so that the nurses can monitor the patient alone themselves. This has been brought to the attention of some hospital’s leaders however no laws have been enacted about this. Additionally, money is an issue when deciding the safety of the patient.There is sometimes an unwillingness of insurers to reimburse anesthesiologists for their care and thus nurse-administered propofol happens quite often and untrained nurses may be caught in the middle of such a debate and feel pressures to administer the propofol themselves. States in the U. S. all have different views on propofol and whether or not it needs to be administered by a trained anesthesiologist or if a nurse should be allowed to do it (Kathy Dix). On an online survey seventy-eight percent of people believe that a trained anesthesiologist should be in control of the propofol and not a nurse (Survey. om). It usually comes down to that health care facilities board and is not decided by the state. In a recent survey, it stated that ninety-six percent of the people thought that every hospital and healthcare facility s hould have set rules on the matter (Survey. com). In addition, American Society of Anesthesiologists, American Association of Nurse Anesthetists, and American A ssociation for Accreditation of Ambulatory Surgery Facilities believe that the only persons trained in administering general anesthesia should administer propofol to non-ventilated patients.The American Society of Anesthesiologists suggests that if that is not possible then non-anesthesia staff who do administer the drug should be qualified to rescue the patients if their level of sedations becomes deeper than intended (Ismp. org). Along with the issue of propofol not being safely administered, it is also abused in the medical community itself. This can be done easily because it is not listed as a â€Å"controlled substance† by the Food and Drug Administration.The drug is likely to be liked by abusers because it induces relaxation or sleep and can cause euphoria and also leaves the bloodstream so fast that it is diffi cult to detect (Nytimes). Anesthetists and abusers of propofol say that it can bring a brief but captivating high as the sedation wears off. It has been referred to as â€Å"dancing with the white rabbit† (referring to the white color of the drug) and â€Å"pronapping† because the drug induces a short sleep that many practioners and medical personnel use between their long shifts (Wall Street Journal). Many practioners do not feel that propofol should be a more controlled substance.However, according to a poll, eighty-seven percent of people think that propofol should be listed as a controlled substance (Survey. com). Naming propofol a controlled substance under the Drug Enforcement Agency’s rules would require the hospitals to track their inventory, account for all the propofol vials, list all of it’s users, and lock it up with the hospital’s narcotics. If these actions were taken doctors and nurses seeking rehabilitation for their abuse of propof ol might cost them their licenses and lead to them having criminal charges because they would have been abusing a Drug Enforcement Agency controlled drug.Michael Jackson’s young death is the most well-known case of propofol abuse and has rekindled the propofol controversy the last two years. Detectives found large quantities of propofol and oxygen tanks in his home. Along with this they found that he had a personal physician that allegedly admitted to administering the drug to Jackson the day the singer died. Jackson reportedly had insomnia and was seeking aid from the drug. It seemed that his dance with the white rabbit caused his death, and may be the cause of many others if not taken into control. ’It enters your bloodstream fast, and even highly trained anesthesiologists can't control it, and die. They don't even have seconds to pull out the needle,’ said Art Zwerling, a registered nurse anesthetist and counselor with the Association of Nurse Anesthetistsâ⠂¬  (Wall Street Journal). When the drug is being used properly there should be strict procedures enforced regarding the supervision of vital signs and oxygen saturation to assure that the patient is safe. Health care facilities should inform all the staff working around propofol how dangerous it is.Today’s standards on the administration of Diprivan (Propofol) are too lenient and need to be reformed. In conclusion, the distribution and handling of this drug needs to be strictly supervised. Work’s Cited â€Å"What the Heck is Proprofol? More Info On the Drug That May Have Killed Michael Jackson† News Week. Web. 29 Jul. 2009. <http://www. newsweek. com/blogs/the-human-condition/2009/07/29/what-the-heck-is-propofol-more-info-on-the-drug-that-may-have-killed-michael-jackson. html> â€Å"How to use Diprivan† Drugs. com. Web. 18 Mar. 2011. <http://www. drugs. om/diprivan. html > â€Å"Propofol (Drug)† Web. 7 Aug. 2009. <http://topics. ny times. com/topics/news/health/diseasesconditionsandhealthtopics/propofol/index. html> â€Å"Michael Jackson’s Death From Propofol† Inside Surgery. Web. 24 Aug. 2009. <http://insidesurgery. com/tag/diprivan/> â€Å"Practical Guide to Moderate Sedation/Analgesia† Odom-forren. Donna Watson. 2005. Mosby Inc. â€Å"Propofol (A Drug Used For Sedation)† Carly Turner. Survey ages 18-50, 23 surveyors. Web. 4 May. 2011. Survey. com <http://www. survey. com/cgi-bin/pollxt. pl? poll=PM2U1AR9U9G8>

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Essay about A Comparison of Two Schools of Psychology

A Comparison of Two Schools of Psychology There are many different schools of psychology, each have their own views and they all look at psychology from different perspectives. I am going to outline six perspectives and then compare and contrast two schools. The biological perspective and major figures such as Karl Lashley looks to the body to explain the mind, they look at hormones, genes, the brain, and the central nervous system to explain the way we think, feel and act. The psychodynamic perspective and major figures such as Sigmund Freud views behaviour as driven by powerful mental conflicts locked deep within the subconscious. The behaviourist perspective and major figures such as John†¦show more content†¦In order to enable me to compare and contrast the psychodynamic approach and the behaviourist approach they must be discussed in more depth. Behaviourism is a movement in psychology that advocates the use of strict experimental procedures to study observable behaviour or responses in relation to the environment. B.F Skinner was a behavioural psychologist who became famous for his work with rats using his Skinner box. He took the extreme liberty of transferring his experience and theories of rats directly to humans. It should be kept in mind that rats and people are tremendously different creatures, yet Skinner had no problem with easily assuming what was true for rats, on a very simple scale, would be applicable to humans in very different and complex situations. Classical and operant conditioning played a large part in Skinners research (Glassman, 2000). In a traditional behavioural approach, Skinner followed in the footsteps of Pavlov and Watson. This view puts across that the subject matter of human psychology is only the behaviour of the human being. Behaviourism claims that consciousness is neither a definite nor a usable concept. The behaviourist holds the belief in the existence of consciousness; it goes back to the ancient days of superstition and magic. The behaviourists asks: why dont we make what we can (Nye, 2000). The initial influence ofShow MoreRelatedEssay on Self-esteem and Impression Management1314 Words   |  6 PagesMod 2 Assignment – Personal Examples – Self Esteem and Impression Management Consideration of a person’s perspective â€Å"self† and the processes used to determine behaviors is one element of social psychology. Some of the processes and theories are: impression management, social tuning, social comparisons, mindsets, and intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. This work will examine the basic premises of each of these along with personal examples provided by the author. 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